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Emerging Adults and Police Killings

While many have known all too well that law enforcement has victimized communities of color throughout U.S. history, the intersection of police violence, the racially disparate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and a rising right-wing white supremacist movement seemed to elevate the devastating effects of racism and police violence to a much broader slice of America. Calls for defunding the police and dismantling a racist criminal justice system echoed across communities, in state capitals and even across the world. As the issue of police violence is finally receiving the attention it justifiably deserves, it is critical that state and local leaders pay particular attention to its impact on young adults (increasingly being referred to as “emerging adults”), especially Black and Brown emerging adults.

[POLICY BRIEF 2020] Washington, DC's Young Adult Justice Reforms

Traditionally, criminal justice system involved young, or emerging, adults age 18-25 have been treated in the same ways as older adults. In recent years, jurisdictions around the country have been exploring new approaches to the treatment and care of emerging adults.

[POLICY BRIEF 2020] Sticker Shock: The Cost of Youth Incarceration

In 2014, when the Justice Policy Institute first analyzed the cost of secure youth confinement, 33 states and the District of Columbia reported an annual cost per youth that eclipsed $100,000. In 2020, despite more than a half-decade of falling youth arrests and declining rates of youth incarceration since 2014, 40 states and Washington, D.C. report spending at least $100,000 annually per confined child, with some states spending more than $500,000 per youth per year.

[Policy Brief 2020] The Presence of School Resource Officers (SROs) in America's Schools

Communities across the country have come together to demand meaningful
changes to law enforcement practices in the wake of the tragic murders of George
Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and Rayshard Brooks at the hands of the police. The focus
has rightly been on how deadly police actions have had an outsized impact on
communities of color. This movement for reform extends beyond municipal police
departments. In fact, one of the first demands from community advocates in
Minneapolis was to remove police from within city schools.

[REPORTS 2020] The Child Not the Charge: Transfer Laws Are Not Advancing Public Safety

Over the last 20 years, elected officials and juvenile justice system stakeholders have changed policies and practices to create a more developmentally appropriate youth justice system, resulting in a reduction of the number of confined youth by 60 percent since the 1990s and reducing the number of youth automatically prosecuted as adults by 56 percent since 2007.

[REPORTS 2020] Maryland Faces COVID-19 Crisis in Prisons Without Immediate Steps to Decarcerate

The nonprofit Recidiviz has created an online model built specifically for institutional populations that projects transmission of the COVID-19 virus using state-specific data on the prison population, age distribution, and steps taken to mitigate the spread of the virus. The model predicts that Maryland’s prisons will soon be overwhelmed with individuals infected with COVID-19.

[REPORTS 2020] Restoring Local Control of Parole to the District of Columbia

In January 2019, the District of Columbia government enlisted the Justice Policy Institute to explore the feasibility of restoring local control of parole and make recommendations for how release decision making can be transferred from the federal government to DC government. The recommendations outlined in this report should guide the development and staffing of a new parole board, the criteria for release decision-making, and how individuals are supervised in the community.

[POLICY BRIEFS 2019] Rethinking Approaches to Over Incarceration of Black Young Adults in Maryland

NEW POLICY BRIEF: Maryland leads the nation in incarcerating young Black men, sentenced to the longest prison terms, at a rate 25% higher than the next nearest state — Mississippi.  

State has incarcerated the highest percentage of people who are Black in the country, more than twice the national average.

[REPORTS 2018] The Ungers, 5 Years and Counting: A Case Study in Safely Reducing Long Prison Terms and Saving Taxpayer Dollars

The Ungers, 5 Years and Counting

[POLICY BRIEFS 2018] Maryland Justice Reinvestment Act: One Year Later

Maryland Justice Reinvestment Act

[REPORTS 2018] Smart, Safe, and Fair: Strategies to Prevent Youth Violence, Heal Victims of Crime, and Reduce Racial Inequality

[Reports 2018] Smart, Safe, and Fair: Strategies to Prevent Youth Violence, Heal Victims of Crime, and Reduce Racial Inequality

Marc Schindler's Testimony to the D.C. Council on the Youth Rehabilitation Amendment Act of 2017

On October 26, JPI's Executive Director Marc Schindler testified before the D.C. Council in support of the Youth Rehabilitation Act (YRA) of 2017. Schindler urged that the continuation of the YRA to be a part of a larger strategy to address violence in D.C. as well as for the age of eligibility for the D.C. Youth Act to be raised to 25 years of age.  

[REPORTS 2017] The Cost of Crimmigration: Exploring the Intersection Between Criminal Justice and Immigration

Exploring the intersection between criminal justice and immigration

How ‘Raise the Age’ Laws Might Reduce Recidivism

Citing JPI's Raise the Age report. 

[REPORTS 2017] Raise the Age

Shifting to a safer and more effective juvenile justice system.

[REPORTS 2016] Improving Approaches to Serving Young Adults in the Justice System

JPI convened advocates, policymakers, practitioners, funders, and directly impacted individuals to flesh out what more effective approaches to serving young adults in the justice system.

Crime Statistics and Holistic Violence Prevention

As homicides increase in America, learn how we can invest in holistic approaches in violence prevention.

[REPORTS 2016] Defining Violence: Reducing Incarceration by Rethinking America's Approach to Violence

In Defining Violence, JPI says it's impossible the U.S. will be able to lower its incarceration rate significantly without changing how the justice system treats violent crimes. 

Parole Perspectives in Maryland: A Survey of People Who Returned to Prison from Parole and Community Supervision Agents

A new analysis from JPI shows the connection between efforts to reduce prison populations, connect people to work, and address the challenges of Baltimore’s distressed communities.

The Right Investment? Corrections Spending in Baltimore City

According to a new report released today by the Justice Policy Institute and the Prison Policy Initiative, Maryland taxpayers are spending $5 million or more to incarcerate people from each of about half of Baltimore’s communities.

Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration

Our new report, Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration, provides estimates of the overall costs resulting from the negative outcomes associated with youth incarceration, costing taxpayers $8 billion to $21 billion each year.

JPI "Maryland Month" Series

JPI named September 2014 "Maryland Month" and published a series of factsheets and graphics highlighting various aspects of the Maryland justice system.

Billion Dollar Divide: Virginia's Sentencing, Corrections and Criminal Justice Challenge

Billion Dollar Divide points to racial disparities, skewed fiscal priorities, and missed opportunities for improvements through proposed legislation, and calls for reforms to the commonwealths sentencing, corrections and criminal justice system. While other states are successfully reforming their sentencing laws, parole policies and drug laws, Virginia is lagging behind and spending significant funds that could be used more effectively to benefit public safety in the commonwealth.

Virginia's Justice System: Expensive, Ineffective and Unfair

Virginia's Justice System: Expensive, Ineffective and Unfair points to reforms that, if implemented, would result in relief for Virginians directly impacted by the justice system and taxpayers alike.

BAIL REFORM UPDATE 2013: Pretrial Services Programs Refined and Expanded Their Reach, while the Bail Industry Continued to Fight Forfeiture Collection and Non-financial Release

This brief provides an update on pretrial and bail reform over the last year as a follow up to JPI's 2012 Bail Month Report Series.

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